Video Codec/ Container


Without any kind of compression in video clip streaming, the network can’t transfer the raw data. Likewise, because of huge documents dimensions, saving information on minimal capacity of hard disk drive is not feasible. That’s why we should make use of compression, especially in video security systems. Video clip compression eliminates redundant video clip information, to make sure that the video clip documents could be transmitted or kept successfully. Video content is inscribed and also deciphered by utilizing a video clip codec method, inside a container format, so the video quality is not degraded at the time of transferring over the network. We research the concept and also some different kinds of video clip codecs and also video clip containers along with their differences.

Exactly what is video codec?

A codec is a software program used to press or unwind an electronic media declare transmission over a data network. Actually, a pair of encoding and deciphering formulas that collaborate is called a video clip codec, so that encoder utilizes these formulas to efficiently compress the size of the video file, then decoder unwind it when required. Some codecs include both of these parts and others include among them. Moreover, codecs are divided right into two categories: lossless as well as lossy codec. In lossless codec all the info is maintained in the initial stream, therefore the video high quality is protected. On the other hand, in lossy codec due to making use of reduced data bandwidth and also missing some of the original information to achieve the best compression, the quality will be decreased.

There are different standards of codec which utilize different technologies to inscribe and translate the video file related to desired application. Because video clip content that is pressed making use of one standard could not be unwinded with other conventional, different application of video clip codecs are usually not suitable with each various other. Since, one formula can not properly decode the result from an additional algorithm.

Nonetheless, implementing many different formulas in the exact same software application or equipment is feasible, so several layouts can be compressed. Utilizing different methods of compressing information results in alternative bitrate, quality and also latency. The time it takes to press, send, unwind and show a data, called latency.

How video clip compression can help video surveillance?

Video compression approaches utilize a codec to lower or get rid of unnecessary documents or structures from video documents, with no substantial degradation in final video. This makes the video clip documents smaller, so more video could be kept on NVR hard disks or documents can be kept for longer amount of times.

As a result of big capacity of high resolution video documents, video clip compression is an useful device when the surveillance system has storage space as well as bandwidth limitation. It is worth mentioning that to achieve desired picture quality in spite of compression, the best balance of image quality and also compression approach need to be discovered.

In IP video clip, encoding would be done by the IP cam encoder and also the decoding is usually done on the computer system or gadget which is showing the online video.

Pressing video results in submit transferring over network without substantial hold-up, leading to broadband data transfer, which is specifically important in mobile seeing with a smart phone in video security.

Various sorts of video clip codec:

Just like an electronic image electronic camera, a network video camera catches private photos and also presses them into a layout. The video camera catches as well as compresses specific images per second (fps), and then make them a continuous flow of images over a network to a watching station. At a framework price of about 16 fps and above, the viewer will certainly regard complete movement video. Because each specific image is a total pressed picture, they will have the same top quality, established by the compression level specified for the network electronic camera. So, Video compression is performed automatically by monitoring camera and selecting the compression level is a crucial concern to accomplish the most effective video top quality. Right here, we study a few of video clip compression techniques.


Motion JPEG (MJPEG) is a video clip codec where each video clip area (structure) is separately pressed right into a JPEG image. As JPEG is a compression method to compress the images, MJPEG is a formula to press multiple frames of video clips as well as send them as private JPEG images. The resulting top quality of video clips is independent from the movement in the photo, so top quality is not reduced when the video has great deals of movement.

Because of offering minimal latency in image processing and also preserving image high quality throughout transmission over low transmission capacity schedule, MJPEG is still an useful compression style even with being an old lossy codec.


MPEG, representing Moving Photo Professionals Group, is among the biggest family members in video codec and also the most typical video clip format. Its formulas compress data into small bits that can be conveniently sent and after that decompressed. Considering that a few of data will be eliminated in MPEG, this approach is a lossy compression, however this problem is usually unseen to the human eye. One of the most common types of MPEG consist of MPEG1 (made use of in the manufacturing of VCD and also the download of some video clips), MPEG2 (used in the production of the DVD and also in several of the HDTV as well as high demand video clip editing and enhancing), and also MPEG4. MPEG4 sends video clip and images over a narrow transmission capacity, indicating that it lowers the network bandwidth utilized by the monitoring system. Likewise, MPEG4 decreases the amount of needed storage space as well as increases the quantity of time that video could be kept, which make it advantageous for video clip security. On the various other hand, MPEG4 can recognize as well as deal with different audio and video items in the structure, which enables individual elements to be compressed a lot more effectively. For this reason, it could blend video with message, graphics and also 2-D and also 3-D computer animation layers.

It is likewise essential to mention that, as a result of utilizing video clip sequencing compression which transfers only the modifications in the series, MPEG utilizes less network transmission capacity as well as storage than MJPEG. Nevertheless, the top quality typically reduced where there lots of movement readily available in video clip, it is a disadvantage of MPEG.


DivX as the prominent MPEG4 based codec created by DivX, Inc, makes it possible for user to play as well as produce premium quality video clips in a fast method and the most effective top quality. DivX could press a DVD film to fit on a CD, and DivX HD could decrease an HD motion picture to fit on a DVD.


It is an open source variation of DivX, so videos which encoded by XviD can be translated by all MPEG4 compatible decoder. The XviD codec can press a complete size DVD quality motion picture to fit on a single CD, while original image high quality is still kept. It is used for pressing video clip data in order to promote video information transferring and also storage space improvement on hard disks.

H. 264:

H. 264 is the most recent and most effective compression approach particularly in video clip monitoring. This modern technology evaluates small teams of frameworks together as a series to remove replicate content in each framework without changing. Low bandwidth use, decreased storage requirements, higher resolution and far better top quality pictures encourage the safety and security monitoring applications to make use of H. 264 codec.

Why H. 264 video compression is recommended in video monitoring?

To identify the supremacy of one compression style to one more, some factors should be taken into account such as bandwidth intake, storage space demand, latency and also photo top quality.

The prominent video compression criteria are MJPEG, MPEG4, and also H. 264, while some functions of H. 264 make it more prominent in video safety systems.

The H. 264 video clip compression typical offers roughly two times the compression of the previous MPEG4 requirement for the very same video quality.

The bitrate is the overall number of little bits which moved between two gadgets. The bitrate of an IP camera straight affects the optimum quantity of information which could transfer over network at any kind of given time (transmission capacity). If security system makes use of more data transfer compared to readily available, video clip feeds will shed. So, by reducing the bitrate extra data can be transferred as well as the transmission rate will be enhanced. H. 264 offers reduced bitrate for reduction in bandwidth use, 80% less than MJPEG video and also 30-50% below MPEG4. The lower bitrate is preferred for safety and security applications which need quick frame rate such as online caso, website traffic monitoring, item checking (such as lorries, individuals), and so on

. On the other hand, in video surveillance system the optimum amount of storage capacity suggests how many taped days could be retained, so the quantity of needed storage space for recording needs to be taken into consideration. Low bitrate decreases the documents dimensions being kept, so that utilizing H. 264 will provide 30-80% total saving on storage space as compared to conventional compression styles. Consequently, the preservation period for videotaped archive will certainly be increased.

Low latency is a need for video clip surveillance, due to the fact that photos must show up in actual time in security monitoring. H. 264 gives reduced latency, so this compression approach is needed in video clip monitoring. Additionally, photo high quality is a vital factor for any video clip security system in addition to savings in transmission capacity and also storage room, so the efficient compression technique need to give high video resolution. Hd video clip encoding by H. 264 allows the IP video camera to record details and supplies top quality photos which makes it a suitable video codec for mission critical video monitoring.

H. 264 offers techniques to create better video encoders, resulting in higher quality video streams, higher framework rate and also higher resolution at reduced little bit rate compared with various other video codecs.

Technically, H. 264 presents a new as well as innovative intra forecast system that is a crucial part of its efficiency in video clip monitoring. The brand-new intra prediction is utilized to inscribe I-frames (the first photo in a video clip sequence is always an I-frame) which substantially reduces the bit dimension of an I-frame and keeps top quality with consecutive prediction of smaller sized blocks of pixels within each macro block in a framework.

Decreasing data when there is a lot of motion in a video is other essential factor in video clip compression approaches. This requires strategies such as block based movement payment, which divides a frame into a collection or macro block. This method has been enhanced in H. 264 encoder, verifying its efficiency in jampacked surveillance scenes where the premium quality is demanded. Also a particular filter made use of in H. 264, smoothes block side using a flexible strength to accomplish a virtually great decompressed video clip.

Distinctions in between H. 264 and also H. 265:

H. 265 or HEVC (High Performance Video Clip Coding) as the next generation of H. 264, is a video compression criterion which provides video clip quality the same to H. 264 at only half the bitrate, suggesting that the data transfer usage is separated in fifty percent. Demand for far better compression, greater image high quality as well as data transfer saving causes H. 264 change to H. 265 compression.

What is video clip container (documents) format?

Container style is a kind of documents format which contains various type of data pressed by different codecs. Video container layout contains different components of a video clip such as the stream of images, the noise, and also anything else.

There are different kinds of video documents layout which are defined in this section briefly.

AVI layout (. avi):.

AVI which represents Audio Video clip Interleaved, as a multimedia container format shops data that could be inscribed in a variety of various codecs and also can consist of both audio as well as video data. The possibility of selecting codec for AVI container, can get the high price compression as an advantage of AVI style. Nevertheless, as a downside, if AVI files compress under specific limitations, the video high quality will certainly be lost.

MP4 style (. mp4):.

The MP4 container utilizes MPEG4 or H. 264 for video encoding, as well as AAC for audio compression. It is widely supported on the majority of consumer gadgets, as well as the most usual container made use of for sound and visual streams online.

MKV format (. mkv):.

MKV is a container that supports any sound or video layout, so it is one of the very best container to store sound and also video clip files. Additionally it sustains error recovery building, indicating that playing back corrupted data is possible. For this reason, MKV is a versatile and also effective container that has swiftly turned into one of the most effective containers currently available.

WMV format (. wmv):.

WMV means Windows Media Video clip and these files usually consist of Windows Media Video as well as Windows Media Sound. WMV has documents which support digital rights management, avoiding individuals from duplicating the info. The advantage of this format is that it could compress huge video clip documents by maintaining considerably excellent quality.

Blink video format (. flv,. swf):.

FLV is a file layout utilized by Adobe Flash Player to store and also supply integrated sound as well as video streams over the Internet. The benefit of this style is its little size, so it can be conveniently viewed or downloaded. There are 2 different video data formats referred to as Flash Video clip: FLV and also F4V. The most recent FLV file styles could sustain H. 264 video clip encoding and AAC audio coding.

ASF style (. asf):.

The Advanced System Format (ASF) was previously known as advanced streaming style or energetic streaming layout designed largely to shop and also play digital media streams and send them over networks, so it supports data transfer over a wide variety of networks and methods. ASF submits support playback from digital media serves, HTTP servers, as well as storage space tools. It is not O.S dependent.

Among the advantage of ASF format is that playing the video is practical before it is streamed to the end, allowing the customer to playback and view the documents when a particular amount of bytes have actually been downloaded and install and the file continues to download while viewing, makings it perfect for web usage. (For example like YouTube).

Although ASF does not specify exactly how the video or sound need to be encoded with the codec, it defines the structure of the video and also audio stream. ASF container typically has Windows Media Audio (WMA) as well as Windows Media Video (WMV) documents which could be compressed by utilizing a range of video codecs. Nevertheless, the very best compression is accomplished BY the Microsoft Windows Media Sound codec. Likewise ASF documents can contain any information kind like text streams, manuscript command, website, title cd (for audio track) along with video clip as well as sound stream types.

The drawback of ASF format is that given that it is developed mostly for streaming capabilities, the optimum resolution is small at 352×288.

This layout has been changed by WMA as well as WMV documents.

Differences in between video clip codec as well as video clip container layout:.

Codecs as well as containers are not equal. Video file style specifies just how the data is kept together with the sound and also video clip information. It does not define the compression method of information, while codec executes encoding and also deciphering the video as well as sound streams in a video file. Simply puts, information that has actually been pressed using a specific codec is located inside the container. Good container styles could take care of data pressed by a range of different codecs. Often container and codec have the very same name, for instance, a documents layout such as Windows Media Audio (WMA) consists of data that is compressed by using the Windows Media Audio codec. Nonetheless, a documents style such as Sound Video Interleaved (AVI) could consist of information that is compressed by any of a number of various codecs, consisting of MPEG-2, DivX, or XviD codecs.


Monitoring systems ought to be developed around the available storage ability or bandwidth allowance. Decreasing the storage requirement and also having the ability to lower the bitrate while maintaining high resolution are the crucial problems for these systems. Video compression techniques enables encoding video clip streams to transfer over the network and also translating the streams to view without substantial destruction in high quality. Video clip compression is achieved by removing unnecessary components of the picture as well as lowering the color resolution.

Amongst different video codecs, Activity JPEG provides excellent compression price and high quality, however H. 264 presents a beneficial advance in video compression modern technology due to extra precise prediction capacities. H. 264 is now one of the most extensive compression method in network camera because of significant improvements in coding performance, latency, intricacy as well as toughness. It delivers an average bit rate reduction of 50% as compared to older video codec requirements, implying that better is accomplished at the conserved bitrate or alternatively, the same quality video clip at a reduced bitrate.

On the other hand, the market need for better photo high quality, higher framework rates as well as higher resolutions with minimized bandwidth intake results in the advent of H. 265 as the future generation of H. 264. It accomplishes higher resolution at just the fifty percent of H. 264 bitrate, leading to bandwidth conserving.

Finally, it should official source point out that today video network products which sustain numerous compression style go now particularly H. 264 and H. 265 are excellent to accomplish maximum flexibility and also important link performance.

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